General Interest
-  History
-  Eva Crane
-  Education 
-  Hygienic Behaviour
-  Pesticides and Bees
-  Products from Beekeeping
-  Honey Recipes
-  Native Pollinators
-  Planting for Pollinators
-  Bee Lining
-  Pictures and Posters
-  Webinars
-  Honey Bee Science
-  Bees of the World
-  Africanized Bees

USDA Report on Honey Bee Health (2012)
Bees in Decline: Factors that put European Pollinators and Agriculture at risk (Greenpeace) 
Bees in the Green Movement by Dr. James Tew (Auburn University)
The Honey Bee - Interesting Facts 
Honey Bees in House Walls (Ohio State University)

Beekeeping shown in the tomb of Pabasa (Egypt c. 650 BC)

                              The value of bees in ancient Egypt

The World History of Beekeeping and Honey Hunting by Eva Crane
"This book is the first book to explore in detail the world history of man’s use of bees from prehistoric times to the present day. It gathers together a vast amount of information in an eminently readable text. From archaelogical evidence about bee hives in Ancient Egypt to the Maya people of Mesoamerica who kept stingless bees, Dr Crane recognieses the variations in methods and yet there are some uncanny similarities. It wasn't until the 1600 that beekeeping techniques started to change in Europe, which culminated in 1851 with L L Langstroth's moveable frame hives being produced in the USA. The subsequent changes in beekeeping, based on scientific knowledge, brings the history up to date. There are over 500 illustrations and extensive bibliographies and appendices." IBRA Here is a preview of this amazing book. The World History of Beekeeping and Honey Hunting.

Historical Beekeeping Videos
A History of Beekeeping with Bill Mares
Beekeeping and Honey Production 1920's 
Magical Beehive Story (Dance) from the early 1900's  
1925 - Bijenmarkt (Bee Market) Veenendaal, Netherlands Hand slapping and dogs 
1927 - New York - Girl tends to her Langstroth Bee Hive 
1931 - Bee Market, Tilburg, Netherlands Pipe smokers  
1930's - Dutch Bee Market Skeps 
1933 - The Keeper of the Bees Commercial 
Thirties Beekeeping Part 1 Oldies but goodies 
Thirties Beekeeping Part 2 Oldies but goodies 
Thirties Beekeeping Part 3 Oldies but goodies 
Thirties Beekeeping Part 4 Oldies but goodies 
Thirties Beekeeping Part 5 Oldies but goodies 
Het Bijenvolk The Bee Community (Dutch) 
Beekeeping on the Move 1947 Australia 
1948- British Transparent Bee Hive Observation 
1956 - Lassie - The Bee Hive 
1961 Bee Research Foraging 
1965 - Bees for Export British 
Women in Beekeeping History 
Bee Smoker History Smokers 
The History of Root Candles Bees Wax 

Africanized Bees

A lecture given by Juliana Rangel (Texas A&M) at the 2015 National Honey Show entitled "Africanized Honey Bee Biology"

"The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) originated in the Old World (Europe, Africa and the near East), where influenced by different selective environments, diversified into several subspecies (Ruttner, 1988). In the Americas, early European settlers introduced Western European A. m. mellifera and A. m. iberiensis, followed by later introductions of Eastern European races, mainly A. m. ligustica (Whitfield et al., 2006). Thus, up to 1956, honey bees of predominantly European-descent existed in the Americas. In that year, Brazilian researchers introduced queens of A. m. scutellata and A.m. adansonii, from South Africa and Tanzania to the state of São Paulo, Brazil, to develop a selective breeding program (Kerr, 1967). European honey bees (EHBs) kept in Brazil were not well adapted to tropical conditions, and a hybrid bee could be better suited for these regions (Kerr, 1967). An accident caused the release of pure African colonies, which interbred with locally existing EHBs, thereof, originating the so-called Africanized honey bee (AHB) through the process of Africanization (Nogueira-Neto, 1964Rinderer and Hellmich, 1991).
The process of Africanization is one of the most dramatic invasion events by any animal species (Page, 1989Clarke et al., 2002). In spite of many attempts to stop the advance of AHBs, they expanded rapidly and produced large feral populations, which in the course of 30 years, colonized most of the Americas displacing resident EHBs, except in temperate areas, presumably because of reduced adaptation to these environments (Rinderer and Hellmich, 1991Schneider et al., 2004). In their northward and southward advance, AHBs disrupted beekeeping in many countries of South and Central America, in part, because the beekeeping industry was not extensively developed and only low concentrations of EHB colonies existed (Rinderer and Hellmich, 1991Rinderer et al., 1991). In contrast, Mexico has one of the highest concentrations of managed EHB colonies worldwide, and a great diversity of climates, ecosystems and beekeeping regions (Labougle and Zozaya, 1986Quezada-Euán, 2007). In Mexico, beekeeping is a major activity of great economic and social importance, making the country the sixth world’s largest honey producer and the third largest honey exporter (Programa Nacional para el Control de la Abeja Africana [PNCAA], 2010)..." from the study "The Process and Outcome of the Africanization of Honey Bees in Mexico: Lessons and Future Directions" 
Spread of Africanized Honey Bees through the Americas

Potential Range of Africanized Bees in the United States (University of Georgia)
"As Africanized bees expand into temperate areas, their tropical adaptations are less advantageous. Cold weather seems to limit both their defensiveness and overwintering capacity. Africanized bees are more defensive in warm tropical regions and less so in cooler zones. In South America the bees do not overwinter south of 34 degrees S latitude, which corresponds roughly to Atlanta, Georgia. (Please note, however, that Africanized bees are found north of this latitude in the American West.).  In areas where their ranges overlap, African- and European-derived bees interbreed, causing “hybrid zones” where bees share African and European traits. In Argentina, Africanized bees dominate in the northern semitropical regions but European bees dominate in the southern temperate areas; the area in between (ca. 32-34 degrees latitude) is a hybrid zone where bees have varying degrees of African or European traits. A similar pattern may occur in the United States, with African traits dominating in southern regions.  In spite of the alarm surrounding Africanization, these bees have not caused widespread or permanent chaos. Dramatic stinging incidents do occur, but the quality of life for most people is unaffected. Typically, the commercial beekeeping industries of Africanized areas suffer temporary decline and then eventually recover."


Despite the B Movie title some good info in this movie on Africanized bees (i.e. range including Utah, Colorado...) and Vespa mandarinia (Murder Hornet).

Jimmy Doherty, pig farmer and star of Jimmy's Farming Heroes, travels to Nepal to meet an ancient group of people who risk their lives to farm their local honey.  A keen beekeeper with a passion for honey, Jimmy has always been blown away by the sheer variety of flavours, appreciating a good honey like others enjoy a fine wine. So when he heard about an ancient group of people in Nepal who are willing to risk their lives to taste their local honey, he knew he wanted to share the experience.  As a 'honey hunter' Jimmy must scale a massive cliff to reach the home of more than two million bees and dangle 200 feet up to get their honey. If successful, the reward is not only to learn more about these amazing bees, but also to taste one of nature's finest bounties, beautiful wild honey.

Honey hunting in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (India) by Kunal Sharma

The Giant Japanese Hornet is the fiercest looking insect on earth, and one of the deadliest. This film follows the remarkable life of one giant hornet queen, as she emerges from hibernation and starts to build up a colony in an old temple garden. Her army of warriors terrorize the beautiful mountain valley in their constant struggle to find food for their hungry grubs. In a series of dramatic pitched battles, the giant hornets massacre thousands of bees, but victory isn't always assured - one local honeybee fights back thanks to a remarkable defensive strategy, and suddenly it is the hornets that are dying. A beekeeper monk bears witness to the rising power of the giant hornet colony, and despite the hornet's attacks on his own bees, he reveals a deep respect for these incredible predators.

Tree Beekeeping in France Trees 
Apiculture in Oku, Cameroon Earning a Living from the Kilum-Ijim Forest
Women's Collective in Mexico works to save Stingless Bees
Hope is Golden: The Fair Trade Honey story from Brazil
Honey Hunters of Nepal Wow! 
Beekeeping in Ixcan, Guatemala
Hallucinogen Honey Hunters of Nepal
Japan's (Tokyo) rooftop bees Japan 
New York City (Brooklyn) beekeeping NYC 
Urban beekeeping  San Francisco 
Chicago Rooftop Bees Chicago Rooftop Bees 
Bees Without Borders Many developing countries 
Nongtraw Village, India Agrobiodiversity  
Anita the Beekeeper (India) Culture Unplugged 
Bee Natural Uganda Uganda 
Honey for the Maya Mexico 
Ceremonia de Miel Yucatan Stingless honey bees 
Bees in the world by Eric Tourneret Bees in the World 
Freelance photographer since 1989, Eric Tourneret is today recognized internationally as "the bee photographer".  He presently lives in the Ardèche region of France. His childhood near Annecy, France, between lakes and mountains, attuned him to the beauty of natural settings.  At the age of 17, he discovered Africa, the desert and encounters with various other cultures.  He was introduced to photography in studios where he worked with fashion and advertising photographers, with specialists in lighting and visual creation. He then travelled the world during fifteen years bringing back ethnic and social feature stories for the Press.  When French beekeepers’ efforts to have systemic insecticides prohibited alerted him to the disappearance of the bees, Eric began an in-depth work in 2004 on apiculture by immersing himself in the life of the hive. His innovative photographs were put together in a first published work "Le peuple des abeilles" (The Bee Nation) and have appeared in many publications in the international press. In 2007, he expanded his investigations on a worldwide scale with a series of features on the relation of humans to bees, from the most archaic harvesting methods to industrial and commercial beekeeping. His work was published in 2009 under the title "Cueilleurs de miel" (The Honey Gatherers).
     Since then, Eric Tourneret has continued his travels, exploring the great beekeeping traditions in Slovenia, Germany and Turkey. He has encountered the nomads of Ethiopia and the Pygmies of the Republic of the Congo, the giant bees of India and Indonesia, the stingless bees of Brazil, Costa Rica and also the killer bees of Panama. He has discovered urban apiculture in New York, London, Berlin, Hong Kong… and the dangerous Asian hornet that has arrived in France, the perpetual honey flows in Australia and hand pollination in China.
     Exhibited at photography Festivals, in Natural History Museums, Botanical Gardens, his images testify to a world in transition and reveal the causes of the disappearance of the bees.  These ten years of discovering bees and people have resulted in an exhibition on the Fences of the French Senate, Paris France.  Eric Tourneret’s work was recently exhibited at the United Nations in Geneva, Switzerland.
     To view some of Eric's photography visit his website . (Youtube channel).

BBC Natural World 'Queen of the Savannah' from Ember Films on Vimeo. The queen African honeybee rules the savanna - even elephants panic at the buzzing of her hive. This recreates the life of the queen and her colony as they fight to survive. Ground-breaking close-up photography shows a bee-eye view of their world, from the queen murdering her sisters to fighting off giant invaders and eventually migrating across the savanna to the great Mount Kenya. To watch the documentary click on "watch on vimeo".

A lecture given by Norman Carreck at the National Honey Show 2013 entitled "Science and the thinking beekeeper".

Bee Science Websites

Predator Effects Shape Honey Bee Dancing (University of Calilfornia)
Organic Bee Pollen: Origin, Value, Compounds, Activity and Quality (Scientific study)
The Main Driver in Aging in Long-Lived Winter Honey Bees
Altered Physiology of Honey Bees Infested with Varroa
Alternative Strategies in Central Europe for Control of Varroa
Methods for Characterising subspecies of Apis Mellifera (IBRA)
Ecological Adaptations of Diverse Honey Bee populations (U.B.C. and Agr-Food Canada)
Mating between Apis Cerana and Apis Mellifera in Australia (Australian Government)
Polyandry (multiple mates) in Honey Bees (H. Laidlaw and R. Page)
The Impact of Polyandry and Drifting on Honey Bee Genetics (P. Neumann)
Drifting Behavior of Honey Bees and the effect of AFB
Factors influencing Honey Bee Queen Drifting (
Honey Bee Ability to Identify Colors White and Blue (Alexander Komissar)

Bats (a bees friend)
Bats nocturnally forage for insects, many of them crop pests, potentially reducing the pesticide needed.

A Thomas Seeley lecture on Bee Hunting
"In his new book, Following the Wild Bees (Princeton University Press), biologist Thomas Seeley, a world authority on honey bees, vividly describes the history and science behind a lost pastime: bee hunting. Once practiced widely but little known today, the tradition involves capturing and feeding honey bees, then releasing and following them back to their secret residences in hollow trees, old buildings or abandoned hives. Providing both practical tips and new insights into the remarkable behavior of bees living in the wild, Dr. Seeley’s book also offers a unique meditation on the pleasures of the natural world. As more people become aware of the essential role that honeybees play in our global agroecosystem, in Following the Wild Bees readers will find an excellent guide for learning an old craft and experiencing the rich insights gleaned from close observation of the teeming activity found in our everyday environment outdoors." From the Albert R. Mann Library
Thomas Seeley is the Horace White Professor in Biology in the Department of Neurobiology and Behavior at Cornell and the author of three previous books: Honeybee Ecology (1985, Princeton), The Wisdom of the Hive (1995, Harvard), and Honeybee Democracy (2010, Princeton).

Bee Hunting by John Lockard (1908)
Beehunting - A selection of  4 bee hunting videos that accompany the book "Follow the Wild Bees" by Thomas Seeley (1. Finding wild honey bees  2. Capturing bees  3. Marking  4. Following).
An Introduction to Bee Lining by D. Banks and D. Waterhouse
Bee-Lining as a Research Technique in Ecological Study of Honey Bees by Thomas Seeley
Bees in the Forest, Still by Tom Seeley
The Bee Hunter by George Edgell (l949)
Bee lining  - from the University of Arkansas
A series of 8 videos on Bee Lining (including building a bee box)

        Thomas Seeley demonstrating bee hunting in the field.
Bee Hunting: Finding a Wild Colony of Honey Bees  (from Charles Walcott)
"One method of locating a colony of wild bees is called bee lining. In this video, we will join Prof. Tom Seeley as he tries to locate a wild colony of bees. He catches bees foraging on goldenrod and aster, feeds them concentrated sugar solution and determines the direction that they fly as they return to their colony. By painting identifying marks on some bees, he is able to measure their round trip time to get an estimate of the distance to the colony. With direction and distance established, he moves closer. Then, watching the bees, sees that they are living in a dead tree."

Beelining with Jack Cross from Jackie Marro on Vimeo.

Eva Crane (12 June 1912 – 6 September 2007) was a researcher and author on the subjects of bees and beekeeping. Trained as a quantum mathematician, she changed her field of interest to bees, and spent decades researching bees, traveling to more than 60 countries, often under primitive conditions.  Her interest in bees began when she and her husband received a beehive as a wedding present; the giver had hoped that it would help supplement their wartime sugar ration.  Crane wrote over 300 papers, articles, and books, many when she was in her 70s and 80s.  Honey: A Comprehensive Survey (1975), in which she contributed several important chapters, and edited, came about because she told the publisher (Heinemann Press) that a book on the subject was sorely needed. Although now out of print, it remains the most significant review on the subject ever written. A Book of Honey (1980) and The Archaeology of Beekeeping (1983) reflected her strong interests in nutrition and the ancient past of beekeeping.
     Her writing culminated in two mighty, encyclopedic tomes, Bees and Beekeeping: science, practice and world resources (1990; at 614 pages) and The World History of Beekeeping and Honey Hunting (1999; 682 pages). These distilled a lifetime's knowledge and experience and are regarded as seminal textbooks throughout the beekeeping world."Along with writing many books and articles, Crane also helped create a beekeeping library, which held many books on bees and beekeeping, and turned the small journal Bee World into a well-known scientific magazine.  Without doubt she became one of the greatest writers on bees and beekeeping in the 20th century.  In January 1949 she established the Bee Research Association (BRA). From the beginning this organization was international in its aims and  outlook but only became IBRA in 1976.  "IBRA is internationally recognised as the world’s primary source and  foremost provider of information on bees. Its database and information services, including journals, teaching aids and other publications, embrace all bee species whether managed by man for pollination or their products, or truly wild.  IBRA has one of the largest databases of scientific information on bees and bee related interests in the world."  For more information on Eva Crane go to the Eva Crane Trust.
Bee Hives of the Ancient World Part 1 by Eva Crane
Bee Hives of the Ancient World Part 2 by Eva Crane
Bee shelters and bee boles in Cumbria by Eva Crane
Charles Darwin and bees by Eva Crane
Early English Beekeeping up to the end of the Norman period 1135 AD by Eva Crane
English beekeeping 1200-1850 by Eva Crane
A Survey of English beekeeping in 1086 by Eva Crane
History of beekeeping in English gardens Part 1 by Eva Crane
History of beekeeping in English gardens Part 2 by Eva Crane
Honey past, present and future by Eva Crane
Honeydew sources and their honeys by Eva Crane
Owen Thomas beekeeper and skep maker in the eighteenth century by Eva Crane
Physical properties, flavour and aroma of some honeys by Eva Crane and Penelope Walker
The shape, construction and identification of traditional hives by Eva Crane
The world's beekeeping past and present by Eva Crane
Traditional Bee Management as a basis for beekeeping development in the Tropics by Eva Crane et al
Traditional beekeeping in Vietnam by Eva Crane
Winter bee houses and cellars (history) by Eva Crane and Penelope Walker

The World History of Beekeeping and Honey Hunting by Eva Crane
"This book is the first book to explore in detail the world history of man’s use of bees from prehistoric times to the present day. It gathers together a vast amount of information in an eminently readable text. From archaelogical evidence about bee hives in Ancient Egypt to the Maya people of Mesoamerica who kept stingless bees, Dr Crane recognieses the variations in methods and yet there are some uncanny similarities. It wasn't until the 1600 that beekeeping techniques started to change in Europe, which culminated in 1851 with L L Langstroth's moveable frame hives being produced in the USA. The subsequent changes in beekeeping, based on scientific knowledge, brings the history up to date. There are over 500 illustrations and extensive bibliographies and appendices." IBRA Here is a preview of this amazing book. The World History of Beekeeping and Honey Hunting.

"Apart from her authoritative and well-researched books, Eva Crane wrote many articles and texts for lectures. She kept a numbered list of all her publications, in chronological order, adding a letter for late additions, e.g. 004a, but the list does not include her many signed/unsigned editorials and short features in Bee World. She also filed a paper copy of each published article and unpublished typescript (many amended by hand). 
     The list below, which is based on this collection, contains 375 entries. Many of these have been scanned and wherever possible they will be uploaded and accessible via this web site. The following (marked * in the list) were not scanned: non-beekeeping articles (pre-1945, labelled A-O); books; very long chapters in books; and a few articles missing from the collection. All pre-1989 publications are believed to be out of copyright, but we have attempted to contact publishers for permission to upload the scans available to view, whatever the date."

The role of neonicotinoid pesticides in bee health


As a group, insecticides are perilous for insect life, including bees and other beneficial insects. Those insecticides designed to permeate plants from within—systemic insecticides—move through plants and may be present in all tissues after application, including pollen and nectar, posing unique risks for pollinators.
Given their widespread use, Xerces decided to offer an easily accessible reference to the insecticides currently registered  in the U.S. that are known to—or possess the potential to—exhibit systemic movement in plants. 
With this reference, you can retrieve information about these chemicals, such as their toxicity to bees, their persistence, the strength of their systemic activity, and where they can be legally used.
To read more about systemic insecticides, the risks they pose, how translocation works, and other details, click here

Pesticides in and around the Hive with Dr. Reed Johnson

Protecting Bees from Pesticides
Specific precautionary statements designed to protect bees are usually found in the Environmental Hazards section of the pesticide label (Table 1). Review the entire label for precautionary and advisory statements. Key words to look for include “highly toxic to bees,” “toxic to bees,” and “residues.” Crop-specific precautions may also be listed on the label. Although these precautions are based on toxicity to honey bees, they are also relevant to other species of bees, with some exceptions as noted in Table 4. Residual toxicity to bees varies greatly between pesticides, and can range from hours to a week or more (Table 4). When using insecticides with extended residual toxicity (residues expected to cause at least 25 percent mortality 8 or more hours after application, Tables 2 and 4), it is imperative that applicators and growers carefully consider potential exposures to both wild and managed bees, and avoid applying pesticides to blooming plants (crops or weeds).
(Pacific Northwest Extension)

PoshBee aims to support healthy bee populations, sustainable beekeeping and pollination across Europe. Integrating the knowledge and experience of academics, beekeepers and farmers, PoshBee will:

  • -provide the first pan-European quantification of the exposure hazard of chemicals to managed and wild bees;
  • -determine how chemicals alone, in mixtures, and in combination with pathogens and nutrition, affect bee health, and;
  • -meet the need for monitoring tools, novel screening protocols, and practice- and policy-relevant research outputs to local, national, European, and global stakeholders.

Individual Studies

Pesticides and Their Involvement in Colony Collapse Disorder (Penn State University) - For honey bees low levels of pesticides have been shown to reduce associative learning of individual bees in laboratory studies using the proboscis extension response (Decourtye et al, 2004), altering maze learning performance in free-flying bees (Decourtye, et al. 2010) and the loss of foraging efficiency in radio tagged bees, (Decourtye, et al. 2011). The precocious foraging of nurse bees from IGR insecticides is also documented (Thompson et al. 2007). These changes in learning and behavior can potentially alter normal colony level functions, yet colony-level impacts remain to be verified.  Honey bee larvae reared in cells contaminated with the miticides fluvalenate or coumaphos show a reduced developmental rate and delayed adult emergence along with reduced adult longevity (Wu et al, 2011). These effects can have multiple consequences for the colony including increased developmental time for Varroa mites, reduced colony population dynamics and build up, as well as potential shifts in worker division of labor. Whether or not the pesticides associated with wax in the CART study (aboce) have similar impacts on larvae remains to be determined. Fungicides have long been known to synergize with some pesticides in laboratory toxicity bioassays (Iwasi et al, 2004). More recently, we have determined that combinations of formulated pesticides and fungicides fed to either adult worker bees or to larvae can have synergistic effects on mortality. What happens when 3 or 4 or 5 different pesticide mixtures are ingested by honey bee larvae or adults for substantial periods of time?

The Bees Burden (University of Exeter (England)) - This study reports concentrations of pesticides found in pollen brought back to hives by foraging bees, and sampled using pollen traps (trapped pollen) or direct from the comb (comb pollen, beebread). Twenty-five samples of comb pollen stored over winter from the 2012 foraging season were obtained from locations in seven European countries, and subsequently 107 samples of trapped pollen from the 2013 foraging season were obtained from locations in 12 European countries and analysed at an accredited laboratory. In terms of the geographical areas covered, and the numbers of samples taken simultaneously, this is one of the most extensive studies of pesticides in bee-collected pollen carried out to date.  Residues of at least one of 53 pesticides (including 22 insecticides/acaricides, 29
fungicides and two herbicides) were identified in 72 of the 107 trapped pollen samples, while residues of at least one of 17 pesticides (including nine insecticides / acaricides and eight fungicides) were identified in 17 of the 25 samples of comb pollen (beebread).

Implications of High Levels of Miticides and Pesticides in North American Apiaries (Penn State University and the U.S.D.A.) - "Honey bees across North America are extensively exposed to multiple pesticides.  Brood nest wax and foundations, beebread and trapped pollen, and adult bees and brood comprising 749 samples contained 118 different pesticides and metabolites, 4894 total residues of which 748 were systemics, and averaged 6.5 detections per sample. In the 259 wax samples (Table 1) 87 pesticides and metabolites were found with up to 39 different detections in a single sample, averaging 8 different pesticide residues each. In the 350 pollen samples analyzed (Table 2), 98 pesticides and degradates were identified, with up to 31 different pesticides found in a single sample, and samples averaged 7.1 different pesticide residues each.  The analysis of bees resulted in fewer detections (Table 3), and
averaged 2.5 residues per each of the 140 samples, with a maximum of 25 in one sample. Only one of the wax, three pollen and 12 bee samples had no detectable pesticides."

4 Common Pesticides highly toxic to Honey Bee Larvae (Penn State University and University of Florida) - Four Common Pesticides, Their Mixtures and a Formulation Solvent in the Hive Environment Have High Oral Toxicity to Honey Bee Larvae. "The current study demonstrates the chronic oral and mixture toxicity of common pesticides at hive levels to honey bees at the larval stage. Most notable are the chronic larval toxicities of the fungicide chlorothalonil and its synergistic combinations with frequently used in-hive miticides, and the unexpected high toxicity of the formulation ingredient N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone." 

Impact of Neonicotinoid exposure on colony performance and Queen Supersedure (University of Zurich, Swiss Bee Research Centre, University of Berne and the University of Reading) - Impact of Chronic Neonicotinoid Exposure on Honeybee Colony Performance and Queen Supersedure.  "In line with a recent meta-analysis [44], our results clearly indicate that neonicotinoids negatively impact on honeybee colony performance after chronic sublethal exposure throughout two brood cycles." 

Pesticide Exposure Increases susceptibility to Nosema  (U.S.D.A., University of Maryland and the University of California) - Crop Pollination Exposes Honey Bees to Pesticides Which Alters Their Susceptibility to the Gut Pathogen Nosema ceranae.   "Our results combined with several recent studies of specific pesticides’ effects on Nosema infection dynamics [13–15] indicate that a detrimental interaction occurs when honey bees are exposed to both pesticides and Nosema."

Interactions between Nosema and neonicotinoids weakens honey bees (INRA - Europe's top agricultural research institute) - "We demonstrated that the interaction between the microsporidia Nosema and a neonicotinoid (imidacloprid) significantly weak-ened honeybees."

Exposure to Neonicotinoids effects learning and memory in Honey Bees (Newcastle University, UK) - "The experiments reported here show that prolonged exposure to field-realistic concentrations of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitor coumaphos and their combination impairs olfactory learning and memory formation in the honeybee."

Parasite-Insecticide interaction (Clermont University and CNRS)

In this study, we used a multi-residue method based on LC-MS/MS to analyze samples of puddle water taken in the field during the planting of treated corn and one month later. If honey bees were to collect and drink water from these puddles, our results showed that they would be exposed to various agricultural pesticides. All water samples collected from corn fields were contaminated with at least one neonicotinoid compound, although most contained more than one systemic insecticide. Concentrations of neonicotinoids were higher in early spring, indicating that emission and drifting of contaminated dust during sowing raises contamination levels of puddles. Although the overall average acute risk of drinking water from puddles was relatively low, concentrations of neonicotinoids ranged from 0.01 to 63 mg/L and were sufficient to potentially elicit a wide array of sublethal effects in individuals and colony alike. Our results also suggest that risk assessment of honey bee water resources underestimates the foragers’ exposure and consequently miscalculates the risk. In fact, our data shows that honey bees and native pollinators are facing unprecedented cumulative exposure to these insecticides from combined residues in pollen, nectar and water.


Third generation Ontario beekeeper's story

Conclusions drawn from multiple studies

Worldwide assessment of systemic pesticides  - The Task Force on Systemic Pesticides is an independent group of scientists from all over the globe, who came together to work on the Worldwide Integrated Assessment of the Impact of Systemic Pesticides on Biodiversity and Ecosystems.  The mandate of the Task Force on Systemic Pesticides (TFSP) has been “to carry out a comprehensive, objective, scientific review and assessment of the impact of systemic pesticides on biodiversity, and on the basis of the results of this review to make any recommendations that might be needed with regard to risk management procedures, governmental approval of new pesticides, and any other relevant issues that should be brought to the attention of decision makers, policy developers and society in general.”  To this end a highly multidisciplinary team of 30 scientists from all over the globe jointly made a synthesis of 1,121 published peer-reviewed studies spanning the last five years, including industry-sponsored ones.  "The present scale of use, combined with the properties of these compounds, has resulted in widespread contamination of ag-ricultural soils, freshwater resources, wetlands, non-target vegetation and estuarine and coastal marine systems, which means that many organisms inhabiting these habitats are being repeatedly and chronically exposed to effective concentrations of these insecticides." (175 pages)

Clothianidin adversely effects insect immunity - Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees.

Pesticide Exposure reduces foraging success and survival in Honey Bees - "As Henry et al.’s experiments so elegantly demonstrate, there is no question that dietary thiamethoxam harms honey bee colonies by ele-vating the mortality of adult foragers through navigation failure, at least when the entire daily intake of a forager is consumed in a single dose."

Sublethal doses of a neonicotinoid pesticide and pathogens interact to elevate honey bee mortality - "Through fully crossed experiments in which treatments were administered singly or in combination, we found an additive interaction between BQCV and thiacloprid on host larval survival, likely because the pesticide significantly elevated viral loads."

Combined Pesticide Exposure severely effects Bees -  "Here we show that chronic exposure of bumblebees to two pesticides (neonicotinoid and pyrethroid) at concentrations that could approximate field-level exposure impairs natural fora-ging behaviour and increases worker mortality leading to signi-ficant reductions in brood development and colony success."

Low dose pesticides effects on Bees  - "At the end of the experiment, the hives with the bees that had eaten the imidacloprid in the lab weighed 8% to 12% less than the 25 untreated hives—an indication that the bees had gathered less food and produced fewer workers."

Neonicotinoids - Our Toxic Countryside - "How was all of this allowed to happen? How did the pesticide companies manage to poison most of the world’s arable landscapes and kill close to 10 million bee colonies as well as countless myriads of other insects and birds?  The answer is their profits buy ‘influence’.  More than $1 billion a year from Imidacloprid alone – and possibly $20 billion since 1992 – has enabled them, it is believed, to bully,  bribe, coerce, co-opt and persuade  the governments, regulators and universities of the developed world as well as national beekeeping associations including our own BBKA."

Neonic effect on Honey bees - "So the disruption to the neurological signalling of honey bees by Neonicotinoids means that they become disorientated. The chemicals impair their communication, homing and foraging ability, flight activity, olfactory discrimination (smell is also vital to bees communication systems), and learning, and a weakened immune system."

Pesticides and honey bees (State of the Science 2012 PAN) - “The weight of evidence demonstrates that pesticides are indeed key in explaining honey bee declines, both directly and in tandem with the other two leading factors, pathogens and poor nutrition.”

Are Neonicotinoids killing Bees? (Xerces) - A Review of Research into the Effects of Neonicotinoid Insecticides on Bees, with Recommendations for Action.  

Bee Health The Role of Pesticides (Congress) -  "The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reports that overwinter colony losses from 2006 to 2011 averaged more than 32% annually.  This report provides a listing of the range of possible factors thought to be negatively affecting managed and wild bee populations. In addition to pesticides, other identified factors include bee pests and diseases, diet and nutrition, genetics, habitat loss and other environmental stressors, and beekeeping management issues, as well as the possibility that bees are being negatively affected by cumulative, multiple exposures and/or the interactive effects of each of these factors.  Briefly summarizes readily available scientific research and analysis regarding the potential role of pesticides among the factors affecting the health and well-being of bees, as well as the statutory authority and related regulatory activities of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) related to pesticide use." 

This is the first investigation of neonicotinoid insecticide concentrations in “bee-friendly” nursery plants sold to consumers at garden centers in cities across America. The findings indicate that bee-friendly nursery plants sold at U.S. retailers may contain systemic pesticides at levels that are high enough to cause adverse effects on bees and other pollinators — with no warning to consumers. Neonicotinoid residues were detected in seven out of thirteen samples (54 percent) of commercial nursery plants. In the samples with detections, concentrations ranged from 11 to 1,500 micrograms per kilogram (µg/kg or parts per billion) of plant material.   

The 2008 food crisis was an important catalyst for realizing the need for a fundamental transformation and questioning some of the assumptions that had driven food, agricultural and trade policy in recent decades.  The world currently produces sufficient calories per head to feed a global population of 12-14 billion.  Around 1 billion people chronically suffer from starvation and another billion are mal-nurished.  Therefore hunger and malnutrition are not a product of insufficient supply but results of prevailing poverty and above all access to food.  The world needs a paradigm shift in agricultural development: from a “green revolution” to an “ecological intensification” approach.  This implies a rapid and significant shift from conventional, monoculture-based industrial production towards mosaics of sustainable, regenerative production systems that also considerably improve the productivity of small-scale farmers. 

Roundup (Glyphosate)

Roundup Alternatives - Roundup alternatives without glyphosate are available and can be effective. Organic brand options use naturally occurring oils or acids, and some alternatives can even be made with household ingredients. Farmers may find it easier to use different herbicides or farming methods (

The reason GMO studies are included is the increased useage of gm seeds has resulted in a significant increase in pesticide application.

Planting for Pollinators by Bob Bruner of Purdue Extension ANR

General Planting Guides

Bee Friendly Planting Guide - This planting guide from the Australian Government is particularly timely as there is increasing public concern for the well being and survival of global honeybee populations following the reported colony collapse disorder in the United States and Europe, and the threat to the Australian industry of the destructive varroa mite. This guide to planting choices from the backyard to the bush, right across the nation, will assist with increasing the available bee food.  Although this planting guide is written from an Australian perspective most of the plants are grown around the world.

Bee Protective Habitat Guide - This guide from "Beyond Pesticides" is designed to provide information on pollinators with resources on pollinator-friendly habitat, as well as pesticide use that contributes to declines in pollinator health. To that end, the wildflower section contains perennial species that are known to nurture bee populations in the U.S. The guide is divided into several sections and is arranged by season to encourage gardeners  and land managers to plant flowers that will bloom all year round. Within each season, plants are arranged in alphabetical order by common name. Bloom months have been provided and are rated based on when they commonly begin to bloom in the Midwest. Some species may continue blooming later into the season depending on the location. Note that plant hardiness should be referenced with the Plant Hardiness Zone Map.

*Your ability to grow a specific plant is not based on the country you live in but on the plant hardiness. The world is divided into plant hardiness zones which can be seen on the maps below. Though you should be able to grow any plants from your hardiness zone you are encouraged to grow native plants.


Webinars and Videos 
Planting for Pollinators (University of Illinois)
Planting Pollinators (Vancouver Island)
The Pollinator Partnership is a great source of information on all topics related to pollinators and their environment in North America. They have a great collection of videos at their Pollinator Partnership Youtube channel and their website webinar collection.

Pollinator Planting for Farms
United Nations Report on Small Scale, Organic Farming - The 2008 food crisis was an important catalyst for realizing the need for a fundamental transformation and questioning some of the assumptions that had driven food, agricultural and trade policy in recent decades.  The fundamental transformation of agriculture may well turn out to be one of the biggest challenges, including for international security, of the 21st century.  The world needs a paradigm shift in agricultural development: from a “green revolution” to an “ecological intensification” approach.  The required transformation is much more profound than simply tweaking the existing industrial agricultural system.  

Planting for Pollinators in the U.S.
Wildflowers of Texas: Part 1 (Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center)  - The annual sunflower is very useful and Native Americans greatly valued it. They used for it medicines, fiber, cordage, and as a highly nutritious food for both humans and cattle. The seeds could be ground up and used to make bread. The shells were used to brew a pseudo-coffee. The Incas believed that the sunflower was the physical manifestation of the Sun God on Earth. The plant is an important part of the Iroquois creation myth. Iroquois Creation Myth (from: Long before the world was created there was an island, floating in the sky, upon which the Sky People lived. They lived quietly and happily. No one ever died, or was born, or experienced sadness. However, one day one of the Sky Women realized she was going to give birth to twins. She told her husband, who flew into a rage. In the center of the island there was a tree that gave light to the entire island, since the sun hadn't been created yet. He tore up this tree, creating a huge hole in the middle of the island. Curiously, the woman peered into the hole. Far below she could see the waters that covered the Earth. At that moment her husband pushed her. She fell through the hole, tumbling towards the waters below...

Planting for Pollinators in Canada
Gardening with native plants on Vancouver Island - The three essentials: food, shelter and water. Seed and berry producing shrubs feed and shelter birds. Provide a variety of food sources through the seasons by leaving seed heads on plants. A water feature (protected from cats and hawks) will attract many types of birds and animals.  Butterflies boycott pesticides. Feeding adults prefer certain plant species, but missing plants for caterpillars often restricts butterfly abundance. Plant poplar and willow, maintain areas of natural meadow, create a mud puddle, and tolerate some chewed leaves. Swallowtail caterpillars eat herbs with umbrella-like flowers including Spring Gold, Lomatiums, & Cow Parsnip. Some butterflies overwinter in the leaf litter that renews the soil.  Plant tall sticks in sunny quiet spots for butterflies and dragonflies to rest.

Planting for Pollinators throughout the World
Planting Guide for Honey and Australian Native Bees - The Australian honeybee industry provides essential benefits to the agricultural and horticultural sector through managed and incidental pollination services. Urban environments also benefit from the activities of honeybees. Planting bee forage for honeybee nutrition can offer major benefits to the industry and to society.  However, listed weeds should not be planted. Local nurseries will provide advice about which plants are listed as weeds in your area.  This planting guide for bee forage is particularly timely as there is increasing public concern for the well being and survival of global honeybee populations following the reported colony collapse disorder in the United States and Europe, and the threat to the Australian industry of the destructive varroa mite. This guide to planting choices from the backyard to the bush, right across the nation, will assist with increasing the available bee food.

Honey Bee Hygienic Behavior and Testing from Bee Informed

Hygienic bees removing infested larvae
"Hygienic honeybee colonies are those in which dead and diseased brood is rapidly removed from the colony, thereby reducing the amount of inoculum present. Hygienic behaviour is a trait present in about 20% of Australian honeybee colonies. Some researchers claim that highly hygienic colonies are strongly resistant to the major diseases of honeybees including American and European foul brood, Chalk brood and Sac brood. Hygienic bees are also claimed to be resistant to the parasitic mite Varroa. Hygienic behaviour is usually measured by using liquid nitrogen to freeze-kill a small patch of brood. Hygienic colonies uncap and remove the dead brood within 24 hours whereas this process takes several days with non-hygienic colonies. The first studies of hygienic behaviour were conducted in the 1960s. Walter Rothenbuhler crossed a strongly hygienic line with a strongly non-hygienic line. The resulting F1 colonies were not hygienic. Rothenbuhler then raised daughters off an F1 queen backcrossed these to drones of the hygienic parent. He then evaluated these colonies for hygienic behaviour. The pattern of expression of hygienic behaviour among these backcross colonies suggested that the trait was controlled by two separate genes, one that controlled uncapping behaviour, the other which controlled removal behaviour."

Testing my bees for Hygienic Behavior by Devan Rawn and the OBA Tech Transfer Program


An Introduction to Native Bees (U.S.D.A and Pollinator Partnership)   Native bees are a hidden treasure.  From alpine meadows in the national forests of the Rocky Mountains to the Sonoran Desert in the Coronado National Forest in Arizona and from the boreal forests of the Tongass National Forest in Alaska to the Ocala National Forest in Florida, bees can be found anywhere in North America, where flowers bloom.  From forests to farms, from cities to wildlands, there are 4,000 native bee species in the United States, from the tiny Perdita minima to large carpenter bees. Most people do not realize that there were no honey bees in America before European settlers brought hives from Europe. These resourceful animals promptly managed to escape from domestication. As they had done for millennia in Europe and Asia, honey bees formed swarms and set up nests in hollow trees. Native pollinators, especially bees other than honey bees, have been pollinating the continent’s flowering plants since long before the arrival of honey bees.  Even in today’s vastly altered landscapes, they continue to do the yeomen’s share of pollination, especially when it comes to native plants.

Native Bee Identification

Humble (Bumble) Bees
Conserving Bumble Bees: Guidelines for creating and managing habitat (The Xerces Society)

Mason Bees

Stingless Bees

The Stingless Bees of the Yucatan: Preserving Mayan Meliponiculture by Diana Cohn

Making Native Bee Homes

Farming with Native Bees

Using native bees for farm pollination (College of Agricultural Sciences)

Products from Beekeeping

Value-Added Products from Beekeeping (United Nations, l996) 
"Many of the beekeeping activities in developing countries in the past have been oriented towards
honey production. Wax usually was a by-product and other possible products have rarely found
consideration. Such neglect of other products has a variety of reasons among which an easily
accessible market or the lack of knowledge about production and further use are of major importance.  While production methods of other primary products can be adapted from common beekeeping texts, the further elaboration and use of the same products can rarely be found. If so, descriptions range from highly specific scientific results to self-proclaimed experts fraudulently exploiting consumer ignorance. In order to present a comprehensive and practical review this bulletin tries to synthesize available information from scientific literature and practical, technical literature including the few in-depth reviews available on some of the primary bee products such as honey, Wax and propolis.  Worldwide the usage of such primary products as propolis, royal jelly and bee venom have increased mostly due to inclusion in cosmetic preparations. Medicinal use will increase once better and more detailed studies are completed, which however may not yet be in the very near future. The use of honey and other products has also increased in many countries because of the increasing health awareness and the high esteem of bee products in various processed and unprocessed forms..."

Bee Products - Properties, Processing and Marketing (N.E.C.T.A.R)
"Keeping bees requires knowledge and experience if it is to be done well. This knowledge and experience can be obtained by observing and learning from an experienced beekeeper or through study and practice. Once this has been achieved, a well-qualified beekeeper can produce bee products.Even if someone knows exactly how to keep bees, the products he or she produces may not meet market demands and thus may not be able to provide a sufficient income. It is important to realise that the products have to be bought by others, who determine what demands must be met in order for the products to be worth a certain selling price.  One of the most important market demands is quality. A product has to be consistently good. It also has to be free of impurities and additives.  It also has to look good.  The authors of this booklet are all experts in their areas of beekeeping and are members of NECTAR. But this booklet is not a scientific publication. Its aim is only to show how it is possible to make good products with limited resources."

Help the Honey Speak (Certified Naturally Grown) - A Marketing Guide for Beekeepers with Naturally-Managed Apiaries
"While there are many ways to assess the quality of fresh produce—aroma, firmness, texture—your customers can detect only the color of the honey. Therefore your packaging—jar and label—is important. It should convey the honey within is special and high quality. The section below outlines
your packaging options.  Similarly you (or your representatives) have an important role to play educating customers. Many people think “honey is honey” and see no reason to pay a beekeeper $8 for something that costs $5 in the supermarket. Yet once they encounter an enthusiastic natural beekeeper, many customers are delighted to connect the taste of a varietal to its floral source, learn about how natural beekeeping helps the bees, and do their part by purchasing honey from natural beekeepers.  You’ll need to decide whether to use glass or plastic, or some combination.  Plastic containers include various squeeze containers and the new, inverted jar.  They are lightweight and unbreakable, but generally do not communicate the high-quality image you may favor for
your honey.  Glass jars come in a variety of shapes and convey the “artisanal” nature of your honey.  And glass jars are preferred by customers who avoid storing food in plastic. They are, however, heavy, so in settings where customers will need to carry the honey some distance, a plastic option or smaller jars might be desirable.  By offering a variety of sizes you accommodate the different needs of your customers. Smaller sizes, including small sample-sizes, are very popular, make great gifts, and tempt new customers to try your honey. Larger sizes offer your regular customers a more economical and convenient option..."

Honey (Reference Guide - NHB) - "Honey has the capacity to serve as a natural food preservative. Research has demonstrated the potential for honey to reduce enzymatic browning in fruits and vegetables and prevent lipid oxidation in meats. Most of the antibacterial activity of the honeys occurs due to hydrogen peroxide generation. Other researchers have identified the flavonoids in honey, particularly caffeic acid and ferulic acid, as the most likely contributors. Honey is composed primarily of the sugars glucose and fructose; its third greatest component is water.  Honey also contains numerous other types of sugars, as well as acids, proteins and minerals.4,5 Carbohydrates are described by the number of sub-units they contain.  Fructose and glucose are monosac-charides, that is, simple sugars.  Sucrose, which is composed of fructose and glucose linked together, is a disaccharide; it comprises a little over 1 percent of the composition of honey."

How do bees make honey? (Khalil Hamdan)
How do bees make honey? It's not just bee barf. (Matt Shipman)
Honey and It's Uses (Malcolm T. Sanford)
Infant Botulism and Honey (University of Florida)




Honey Reference Guide (National Honey Board) - Honey has the capacity to serve as a natural food preservative. Research has demonstrated the potential for honey to reduce enzymatic browning in fruits and vegetables and prevent lipid oxidation in meats. Most of the antibacterial activity of the honeys occurs due to hydrogen peroxide generation. Other researchers have identified the flavonoids in honey, particularly caffeic acid and ferulic acid, as the most likely contributors. Honey is composed primarily of the sugars glucose and fructose; its third greatest component is water.  Honey also contains numerous other types of sugars, as well as acids, proteins and minerals.4,5 Carbohydrates are described by the number of sub-units they contain.  Fructose and glucose are monosac-charides, that is, simple sugars.  Sucrose, which is composed of fructose and glucose linked together, is a disaccharide; it comprises a little over 1 percent of the composition of honey.  

Education  (for parents and teachers)

*The epub book format can be read using the free ebook reader Calibre.
*Some of the instructional material is appropriate for children and adults (All)

Teaching (Lesson Plans and aids)
Act For Bees - This is a great curriculum brought to you by the good folks at "Act for Bees" and "Cool Australia".  "We have partnered with  ‘Cool Australia- Learn for Life’ to create an exciting ‘Love Food?Love Bees!‘ curriculum for years 5/6  that can be downloaded from the Cool Australia website and taken straight into the classroom & also practically outside in the garden!"  Cool Australia has a wide range of good curriculum topics connected to sustainability such as "Biodiversity", "Climate Change", "Nature of Mindfulness", "Outdoor Learning", "Sustainability" and "Indigenous Education".  I highly recommend this as an amazing curriculum resource for educators and students of all ages. 

Beekeeping Projects K-3 (Stephen Bambara, N.C. State University) - This beekeeping project for K-3rd grade youth offers learning activities that encourage and strengthen positive interactions between parents (mentors or teachers) and children.  It uses the 1993 Experiential Learning Model by Deen and Newman and Iowa State Univ. Extension Targeting Life Skills models as a foundation. This project book is divided into two levels. Step I is for children 5 and 6 years in age (with little required reading). Step II is for children 7 and 8 years in age and uses more reading skills and is for children who may have completed Step I and seek more activities. They are best performed as a joint activity between adult and children.  The benefit of this subject is to introduce honey bees and beekeeping to our youngest in a responsible way that will help them realize the importance of honey bees and reduce potential fear of the insect.

Honey Bee Education Program (K-5)  The following four lessons are designed to help you teach students in grades K-5 many interesting facts about honey bees including Lesson A - What are honey bees and why are they so important?  Students will learn what a honey bee is, the social structure of honey bees and their role in the hive, and about the behavior of insects that are similar to honey bees. Lesson B - How do honey bees make honey? What’s inside a honey bee, a hive, and a flower? Students will learn what pollination is, how bees behave, how beehives are constructed, what products are found inside the hive, the parts of a honey bee, and the parts of a flower.  Lesson C - What keeps a beekeeper busy? Students will learn the difference between feral and managed bee colonies, the basic structure of a beehive, what beekeepers do and the equipment they use, and how beehives are moved around to help pollinate crops.  Lesson D - what are Africanized honey bees, and why should You, “Bee Aware, Look, Listen, and Run”? Students will learn the importance of managed honey bees, how to describe the differences between Africanized and European honey bees, how to prevent Africanized bees from establishing nests in and around their homes and schools, how to prevent potential stinging incidents, and what to do if they are attacked by bees or other stinging insects.

An Adventure with Bees created by Behany Swartz, Oakland University (8 lesson Grades 4-5)  "Being in an elementary self-contained classroom setting, I chose to integrate this curriculum by using the common theme of honeybees and pulling the identified GLCEs and applying them to this unit.  By using the KNOW/DO/BE framework (Drake & Burns, 2004) as my main model, the major goals of this unit are listed below.KNOW: “Bees are a life lesson.   We have much to learn about and from them” (Caron, 1999, p. I.9).  Students should broaden their knowledge of honey bees.  They will move from basic facts up through larger concepts and make generalizations about the impacts of honeybees on our environment. DO: Eight focused lessons provide visual, auditory, and kinesthetic (hands-on) learning with extensions to provide students exposure to several aspects of honey bees.  Thisintergrated unit incorporates the subjects of science, math, language arts, and technology.BE: Bees and wasps have gotten a “bad rap” and negative image because of their ability to sting and cause fear in many children.  Caron remarks that, “…a lot of people know something about honey bees.  Bees have been admired, studied, cultured, feared and valued, but not always understood” (p. I.3). At the conclusion of this unit, I hope that students will view the honey bee not as an enemy, but instead as a friend and advocate.I also kept in mind the aspects of backwards design when creating my pre/post test and what I wanted the students to achieve.  After that, I designed my lessons to help me reach my goal." 

A Bee's Life Teaching Guide (National Honey Board Grades 4-6)  A fairly extensive teaching guide which includes the subjects, honey bee biology, society, the hive, pollination, honey and beekeeping.
The Buzz About Bees Book 1 (4H Project - Virginia Cooperative Extension)  The beekeeping project (Books 1 - 4) will teach you the basic biology and behavior of honey bees and give you hands-on management skills. The honey bee project books begin with basic honey bee and insect information (junior level) and advance to instruction on how to rear honey bee colonies and extract honey (senior level). These project books are intended to provide in-depth information related to honey bee management, yet they are written for the amateur beekeeper, whether or not you have previous experience in rearing honey bees.

Pollinator Gardens Habitat Program Curriculum and Activities Pre K - Gr. 12 (Pollinator Partnership -  Pollinator Partnership is pleased to provide this supplemental curriculum packet as one way to enrich classroom education through a butterfly and pollinator garden. It includes exercises to expand on and enforce what students have learned about butterfly and pollinator gardens, pollinators, other insects, their relatives and biodiversity. Included are: • Lesson plans for activities relating to insects, ready to integrate into subject areas across the elementary and middle school curriculum, including language arts, math and science • Extension ideas for home • Background information for the teacher • California State Content Standards correlation.

Bee World Project Education Pack (IBRA)  The Beeworld Project aims to promote the value of bees in schools and communities.  This education pack has been produced to help teachers and other educators introduce bees, their activities and their relationship with humans. It provides basic information for the study and understanding of bees, and offers ideas for bee-related activities across the curriculum and in support of Education for Sustainable Development and Global Citizenship (ESDGC).  Using this resource is an effective way to get children interested in bees and pollination, and help them discover how important these are to our daily lives. More detailed information about bees and additional educational resources are available on the IBRA Beeworld Project website.

Honey (B.C. Agriculture)   This unit on Honey has been designed for use in a Grade 11 or 12 Foods and Nutrition class but could also be modified for junior grades. The teaching activities explore a range of topics including fun facts about honey, how honey is gathered and processed, the types of and uses for honey, cooking with honey, and finally, the problems currently faced by beekeepers across the world. Lessons also explore honey as a sustainable food source and encourage the student to compare and evaluate the product with sugar in terms of its health benefits and ecological impact. The topic of Colony Collapse Disorder is important especially as bees are so essential to fertilization of food crops, and it is necessary that they feel empowered to affect change. Each activity is self-contained and suggestions for extending the lesson are given at the end of each.

The Honey Bee: A Teacher's Companion - (L.Johnson, Antioch University) This is an extensive exploration of honey bees for the benefit of the class teacher.  The text and appendices provide material - poetry, music, fables, biographics, class projects and further resources - to draw Apis Mellifera into the life of a teacher and a class.

• learn terminology related to honeybees and beekeeping • learn about honeybees, their life cycle and how honey is produced • understand what pollination is, and how plants produce seeds and fruit • discover the role of bees and the wind in pollinating plants • learn about the tasks and responsibilities of beekeepers, and how honey is harvested • learn about the products and by-products of beekeeping.  Visit the "Bees A Honey of an Idea" virtual museum from the Canadian Agriculture and Food
 Museum.  This is a great online interactive experience that is fun and educational for children of all ages.

School Resource Kit K1-6 (The Canadian Honey Council) - The activities presented in this course relate to honey production.  Although a fascinating subject in itself, the resource does not restrict itself to providing facts and information of honey bees and how honey is made.  Instead honey production is used as a vehicle to develop skills that will make students better learners.  The activities also help foster positive attitudes towards self, others and our world. 

Smithonian Pollinator Lesson Plans (Gr. 4-9)  Smithsonian in Your Classroom’s purpose is to help you use the educational power of museums and other community resources. Smithsonian in Your Classroom draws on the Institution’s hundreds of exhibitions and programs—from art, history, and science to aviation and folk life—to create classroom-ready materials for grades four through nine. Each of the four annual issues explores a single topic through an interdisciplinary, multicultural approach.  The Smithsonian invites teachers to duplicate materials from this publication for educational use.

Kids Discover Bees - Reading Comprehension Skills (  Power Vocabulary is a systematic and individualized approach to vocabulary development that enables teachers to assist students to improve their reading comprehension skills.  Power Vocabulary consists of two word groups—specialized and general-usage words. 

Environmental Learning Program (Pollinators) K-6  This is a single lesson plan with the objective to observe the interaction between flowers and pollinators.

Environmental Learning Program (Bees as Pollinators) K-6  This is a single lesson plan with the objective to observe the interaction between flowers and honey bees as pollinators.

Environmental Learning Program (Pollinator Field Guides) K-6  The objective of this lesson plan is using various colors of pressed flowers, create a field guide to pollinators to various colors of flower.

Africanized Honey Bee Activity Program (Children)  This is a single lesson plan providing information on identifying Africanized Honey Bees and their potential nesting sites. 

Pollinator Activity Book (U.S.D.A. Gr. 4-7)  Information and activities on bees and pollination.

Bees Visit Flowers (Teaching Guide)  Bees visit flowers is a concept cartoon activity that evaluates competing ideas using discussion of alternative explanations about observable facts. Children decide which of the alternatives presented represents the whole answer. They need to support or add to the statements in the cartoon and to link these with their own observations.

Honey Bee Lapbook - Adaptable to different ages ( -  Educational Information and activities on honey bees.  Designed to assist home schooling.

Bees and Flowers - Partners in Pollination (Oregon State University)  - 6 lesson plans (Grades 6-8).  The Rural Science Education Program is a partnership between Oregon State University and local rural K-12 schools for enrichment of the science curriculum with hands-on science activities that encourage critical thinking in K-12 students about the impacts of agriculture on the environment and the implications of advanced scientific research on human lives.

The Bee Book (Haagen Dazs)  An assortment of  honey bee education and activities covering the subjects of science, math, reading, writing and art (Grades 6-8).

What's The Buzz About (  Single page honey bee educational information (all ages).

Planet Bee Foundation is on a mission to change the world - one bee and one student at a time!
We are dedicated to creating a green-minded generation by spotlighting the struggling bee to foster environmental literacy, stewardship, and a pathway to STEM, empowering individuals to take action.
We present workshops and educational programs virtually and in-person to schools, nonprofits, summer camps, environmental centers, community gardens, and businesses. In our commitment to social justice, all of our programs are offered at NO OR VERY LOW COST, thanks to our generous donors and grantmakers. Schools that are Title 1 or whose students receive Free or Reduced Cost Lunch (FRCL) of 50% or more receive Planet Bee synchronous STEM Lesson taught by a Planet Bee educator as well as our asynchronous educational video lesson at no cost. 
Schools that have less than 50% of students enrolled in the Free Reduced Cost Lunch (FRCL) program receive asynchronous educational video lessons at no cost and a reduced price for our synchronous STEM Lesson taught by a Planet Bee educator. We use the percentage of students who receive FRCL in your school to calculate your discount. We double that percentage and then apply it to the full price of our program.  Individual Virtual Video Lessons - NO COST for all schools

The Environment
Environmental Education Story Book (Centre for Eco-Cultural Studies, Sri Lanka - Ages 4-9)  Stories are a perfect way to reach a young child’s attention as they mix real issues and a fantasy world where everything is possible and imagination is the only limit. They are a different way to create a genuine interest in learning while also allowing children to become aware of the different threats to the environment they live in. A mixture of these three ingredients, school, English learning and storytelling has proven effective in other places around the world, where entire conservationist movements have been created around characters like the Easter Bilby in Australia. This and other successes inspired the creation of this book. I hope it can of use to facilitate English learning in Sri Lanka and in other regions where these stories fit the biodiversity conservation context. 

The Travelling Beehive by Elena Garcia and Manuel Angel Rosado, Illustrated by Juan Hernez from APOLO - "The Travelling Beehive" is an amazing book for children of all ages.  I highly recommend it for every beekeeper, their children and grandchildren. This book is wonderfully written by Elena Garcia and Manuel Angel Rosado and beautifully illustrated by Juan Hernaz.  It is published by Apolo which is an organization dedicated to the preservation of pollinators and their habitat.  You can follow Polli the honey bee and her friend Dipter the hover fly as they face the challenges of a disappearing green space.  They are joined in their struggle by Bazumba the wild bee, Missus Bombus the bumblebee, Lepi the butterfly, her majesty the queen, Dorian the farmer and Ramon the beekeeper. Sit back and enjoy the The Travelling Beehive .


Activities and Projects

Education Resource Websites

There is a vast library of instructional webinars available from Brushy Mountain Bee Farm , Ohio State University , Michigan State University , Bee Informed,  North Carolina State Apiculture Program and the Pollinator Partnership.  Here is just a few of those.

Brushy Mtn Bee Farm
Caring for a new colony (143 mins)    
Harvesting and extracting (103 mins)     
Basic Mead making (75 mins)     
Candle making (65 mins)     
IPM techniques (95 mins)    
Processing your wax (75 mins)     
Queen maladies (117 mins)    
Year 2 build up your hives! (89 mins)     

Brushy Mtn Farm Youtube channel has webinars and videos of virtually every topic related to beekeeping.

Hive Health Diagnostics (Barb Bloetsher) 56 mins - Play
Pesticides in and around the hive (Dr. Reed Johnson) - 58 mins Play
Questions from the hive (Dr. Reed Johnson) - 55 mins Play 
Honey Bees and Parasitic Mites (Dr. Jim Tew) - 55 mins Play  (Handout)
Putting the hive to bed for Winter (Kim Flottum) - 56 mins  Play (Handout)
Marketing Bee Products (Dr. Julie Fox - 54 mins) Play  

Bee Crossing

No Trespassing Honeybee Yard


Post a Comment